DOMINASI MASKULINITAS DALAM CERPEN INDONESIA (Masculinity Domination in Indonesian Short Stories)

Resti Nurfaidah

Abstract


Dominasi maskulin selalu ditenggarai sebagai penyebab ketidakadilan gender. Peradaban manusia, dalan berbagai bidang kehidupan,  termasuk dogma agama dan budaya, seolah menempatkan laki-laki pada posisi yang lebih unggul. Ranah publik seakan berbau patriarkis. Lingkungan sosial pun membakukan pemahaman dan pendidikan gender yang  mengusung diskriminasi. Artikel ini memaparkan konsep maskulinitas yang tidak pernah hilang dari kehidupan manusia, terutama  di dalam sastra, seperti terlihat dalam beberapa korpus penelitian  berupa cerpen. Paparan tentang maskulinitas dilandasi beberapa konsep maskulinitas berikut, antara lain, Beynon, Reeser dan Connel dengan metode penelitian analisis deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menujunjukkan bahwa  maskulinitas dalam karya sastra yang diproduksi pada berbagai era, cenderung mendominasi cerita. Tokoh perempuan kebanyakan  hanya diposisikan sebagai objek atau pengisi lapisan kedua dalam kehidupan sosial. Jika melakukan tindakan semisal perlawanan,  ia harus menanggung akibat yang cukup merugikan.

Abstract: Masculine domination is always suspected as the cause of gender inequality. Human civilization, in many facets of life, including cultural and religious dogma, has placed man as if in a superior position.  Public sphere looks as though it smells patriarchal. The social environment also standardizes gender understanding and education leading to discrimination. This article describes the concept of masculinity that never goes out of human life, especially in literature, as seen in some research corpus in the form of short stories. The masculinity of the study explains some concepts taken from, among others, Beynon’s, Reeser ’s, and Connel’s. The study uses the qualitative descriptive method. The result of the research reveals that masculinity in literary works made in various eras tends to dominate the story. Female characters are mostly placed as objects or second class in the social life. If she performs actions like resistance, she will suffer much harm.


Keywords


maskulinitas; sastra; era; dominasi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26610/metasastra.2016.v9i2.239-252

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